The end of the preamble and the beginning of the agreement itself are often indicated by the words “agreed as follows”. Originally, international law did not accept and refused reservations of contracts, unless all parties accepted the same reservations. However, in order to encourage as many States as possible to accede to treaties, more permissing regulations on reservations had emerged. While some treaties still expressly prohibit reservations, they are now generally permitted to the extent that they are not contrary to the objectives and purposes of the treaty. International tribunals and arbitrators are often asked to settle important disputes over contractual interpretations. In order to identify the meaning in the context, these judicial bodies may themselves examine the preparatory work for the negotiation and elaboration of the treaty as well as the final contract signed. Yet international law, including contract law, is a legitimate and important influence on the development of the common law and can be used in the interpretation of laws.  Treaties can be implemented through executive action and existing laws are often sufficient to ensure compliance with a treaty. Another situation may arise if one party wishes to create an obligation under international law, but the other party does not. . . .